# [gmx-developers] Virtual site out of the plane

Thu Sep 28 14:59:57 CEST 2017

```Hello developers,

The calc_vsite3out_param() function in vsite_parm.cpp calculates the weights (called a, b, c in the code) to locate the virtual site (i) out of the k-j-l plane later on in vsite.cpp.

I copied some part of the code here:

pijk = std::cos(aijk)*bij;
pijl = std::cos(aijl)*bij;
a    = ( pijk + (pijk*std::cos(akjl)-pijl) * std::cos(akjl) / gmx::square(std::sin(akjl)) ) / bjk;
b    = ( pijl + (pijl*std::cos(akjl)-pijk) * std::cos(akjl) / gmx::square(std::sin(akjl)) ) / bjl;
c    = -std::sqrt( gmx::square(bij) -
( gmx::square(pijk) - 2*pijk*pijl*std::cos(akjl) + gmx::square(pijl) )
/ gmx::square(std::sin(akjl)) )
/ ( bjk*bjl*std::sin(akjl) );

There are a lot of projections going on here which make the code confusing without any documentation, unfortunately.
Is there some reference for the way that a, b, and c are calculated here?

BTW, what if the number under the SQRT is negative? Then c will be NAN. There is no checking to make sure that we are not calculating the SQRT of a negative number.

Best,